Classical Indian translation is characterized by loose adaptation, rather than the closer translation more commonly found in Europe; and Chinese translation theory identifies various criteria and limitations in translation. In the East Asian sphere of Chinese cultural influence, more important than translation per se has been the use and reading of Chinese texts, which also had substantial influence on the Japanese, Korean and Vietnamese languages, with substantial borrowings of Chinese vocabulary and writing system. Notable is the Japanese kanbuna system for glossing Chinese texts for Japanese speakers.
The term translation technically connotes the art of recomposing a work in another language without losing its original flavour, or of finding an analogous substitute.
Its complexity lies in it being like the transfer of perfume from one bottle to another. As careful as you are, some fragrance is lost but the challenge remains to capture the essence. All things in nature are subject to change — and so is all cultural matter. Translation is always a shift, not between two languages but between the two types of cultural matter.
India is a linguistic galaxy of unparalleled richness.
Few contexts could be better suited than the Indian for a discussion of the processes of translation within a spectacular stellar setting. All texts and all readers are both monolingual and multilingual. A text, obviously written literally in one language in a given manifestation faces a multi lingual reader and thus reaches out to a much larger base, unifying experiences and opinions as it expands.
English has to be admitted as a vast reservoir of translation in contemporary India. It may no longer be a colonial language, but it is increasingly a conduit language.
More English translating have been published in India in recent times than ever before, but our awareness of the need to ensure quality in translation has not heightened the same extent.
Who should judge a translation — somebody who can read the original or somebody who cannot? A person who was able to read the language, and enjoyed the original may find no translation satisfactory, whereas someone who cannot is likely to regard readability in English is the prime requisite.
Any discussion of translation leads automatically to the question: The writer himself, or someone who has not been involved in the primary creative art? The task of the translator is to unfreeze the shapes that thought took in one language and refreeze them into another.
A translator must take into account rules that are not strictly linguistic but cultural. Translators, even when trying to give us the flavor of the language, are in fact modernizing the source.
As far as translators in India are concerned, most Indians who grow up in urban conditions and go to school and college tackle shifts from one language to another so often and so comfortably that translation seems second nature to them. Attempts have been made to define its boundaries and develop its terrain by scholars working in disciplines as varied as Anthropology, Comparative Literature, Culture Studies, Linguistics and Literary Theory.
Viewing translation as a transaction between two languages, the dominant linguistic paradigm has treated it merely as a matter of transfer from the Source Language to the Target Language. There can be two ways of translating: Transliteration or literal translation is word-to-word, phrase-to-phrase or sentence-to-sentence carrying over from the Source Text into the Target Text.
This means that the words and terminologies would either require exact equivalents in the Target Language or would have to be put as it is into the Target Text. It may be ideal for texts falling under technical registers. But they would prove extremely difficult when done on cultural texts.
The aim of the translation is to reproduce meanings of the Source Text and the immediate effect it produces on the native audience for the readers and audience of another culture in whose language the text is to be translated.
But, say, every Hindi word cannot have a counterpart in English because of its vast language and cultural differences in certain connotations and structures.
On the other hand, transcreation or cultural translation means a partial or complete freedom to the translator in dealing with the Source Text. The translator has to render the Source Text in a recreated form in the Target Language. It involves reading every word and sentence carefully, but it is not only or simply a literal rendering.
It is the stage in which the analysed material is transferred in the mind of the translator from the Source Text to the Target Text. The basic structural elements have to be transferred to the Target Language.
It has to be ensured in the process of transformation that the same effect the Source Text had should be achieved for the Target Text for its readers.essay translation in English-Malayalam dictionary.
Glosbe. English ; Log in; en On one occasion, the teacher asked the students to write an essay on life in Georgia and the various problems the country faced. JW__ All languages Transliteration Interface language.
The contribution of Skopos Theory to translation theory 20 Chapter III Language Features of Chinese and English Tourism Texts 21 The major wording characteristics of English and Chinese tourism texts 21 Frequent use of “four-character expressions” in Chinese tourism texts 21 .
The english language essay below has been submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. Please ensure that you reference our essays correctly. Alternatively get in touch if you are looking for more tailored help. Jul 15, · The translator has to deal with the problem of finding equivalent words and expressions in the Target Language, which though cannot be substitutes for the expressions in the Source Language, but can come close to it, can raise similar feelings and attitudes in Author: English Literature.
Official translation: A complete and accurate translation into English from the issuing language.
DYNAMIC EQUIVALENCE: Dynamic equivalence (or functional equivalence) conveys the essential thoughts expressed in a source text. In this, translator focuses . Within Translation 2 test, students get thirty-five translated texts, which serve as a source of data.
Their analysis must include analysis of sentences, words, and phrases. At the same time, such constructions must be considered data, and analyzed according to methods of data analysis.