In one interpretation it is that the past has predetermined the sequence which is about to unfold—and so I believe that how we have gotten to where we are in Artificial Intelligence will determine the directions we take next—so it is worth studying that past. Another interpretation is that really the past was not much and the majority of necessary work lies ahead—that too, I believe. We have hardly even gotten started on Artificial Intelligence and there is lots of hard work ahead.
Machines capable of playing chess have fascinated people since the latter half of the 18th century, when the Turk, the first of the pseudo-automatons, began a triumphal exhibition tour of Europe. Like its 19th-century successor Ajeeb, the Turk was a cleverly constructed cabinet… What is intelligence?
All but the simplest human behaviour is ascribed to intelligence, while even the most complicated insect behaviour is never taken as an indication of intelligence. What is the difference? Consider the behaviour of the digger waspSphex ichneumoneus.
When the female wasp returns to her burrow with food, she first deposits it on the thresholdchecks for intruders inside her burrow, and only then, if the coast is clear, carries her food inside. Intelligence—conspicuously absent in the case of Sphex—must include the ability to adapt to new circumstances.
Psychologists generally do not characterize human intelligence by just one trait but by the combination of many diverse abilities. Research in AI has focused chiefly on the following components of intelligence: Learning There are a number of different forms of learning as applied to artificial intelligence.
The simplest is learning by trial and error. For example, a simple computer program for solving mate-in-one chess problems might try moves at random until mate is found. The program might then store the solution with the position so that the next time the computer encountered the same position it would recall the solution.
This simple memorizing of individual items and procedures—known as rote learning—is relatively easy to implement on a computer. More challenging is the problem of implementing what is called generalization. Generalization involves applying past experience to analogous new situations.
Reasoning To reason is to draw inferences appropriate to the situation. Inferences are classified as either deductive or inductive. Inductive reasoning is common in sciencewhere data are collected and tentative models are developed to describe and predict future behaviour—until the appearance of anomalous data forces the model to be revised.
Deductive reasoning is common in mathematics and logicwhere elaborate structures of irrefutable theorems are built up from a small set of basic axioms and rules. There has been considerable success in programming computers to draw inferences, especially deductive inferences.
However, true reasoning involves more than just drawing inferences; it involves drawing inferences relevant to the solution of the particular task or situation.
This is one of the hardest problems confronting AI. Problem solving Problem solving, particularly in artificial intelligence, may be characterized as a systematic search through a range of possible actions in order to reach some predefined goal or solution.
Problem-solving methods divide into special purpose and general purpose.
A special-purpose method is tailor-made for a particular problem and often exploits very specific features of the situation in which the problem is embedded.
In contrast, a general-purpose method is applicable to a wide variety of problems. One general-purpose technique used in AI is means-end analysis—a step-by-step, or incrementalreduction of the difference between the current state and the final goal.
Many diverse problems have been solved by artificial intelligence programs.In order to stimulate work in the area of artificial intelligence at the undergraduate level of education, SAIS has created a special yearly award for the best Master’s thesis (examensarbete) in the area of artificial intelligence.
While AI can help automate this process, there is a risk that the recommendations AI lausannecongress2018.com has been visited by K+ users in the past month. The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to artificial intelligence. Artificial intelligence (AI) – intelligence exhibited by machines or software.
It is also the name of the academic field which studies how to create computers and computer software that are capable of intelligent behaviour. Text Analytics: Unlocking the Value of Unstructured lausannecongress2018.com has been visited by 10K+ users in the past monthInnovative Software · Transform Data · Any Time.
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