Cooperation Cooperation is highly valued. The value placed on cooperation is strongly rooted in the past, when cooperation was necessary for the survival of family and group. Because of strong feelings of group solidarity, competition within the group is rare. There is security in being a member of the group and in not being singled out and placed in a position above or below others.
Minimum wages therefore vary from region to region. The minimum wage to which an employee is entitled depends on: The nature of the employment. The industry where the employee is employed.
The geographic location of the employment. Restrictions on working time Are there restrictions on working hours? Can an employee opt out on either an individual or collective basis?
Working hours Working hours are governed by a variety of statutes depending on the nature of the activity undertaken by the establishment. For example, if the establishment is a factory, the Factories Act Factories Act applies, and if the establishment is involved in a commercial activity, then the local shops and establishments statute applicable in the region in which the establishment is located applies.
Generally, these statutes provide for working hour limits both on a daily and weekly basis. The normal daily hour limits range from between eight to nine hours, and the usual weekly limit is 48 hours. Under the Factories Act, the daily limit cannot be exceeded without the prior permission of the authorities.
Under the local shops and establishments statute, the normal working hour limits can only be exceeded up to certain prescribed limits, and overtime payments must also be made.
Employees cannot opt out of the working hours stipulated under law. Rest breaks Rest breaks usually range from half an hour to one hour for each working day and are usually required to be given after four hours, or in some states five hours, of continuous work.
Shift workers Shift workers have the same working hours and rest breaks as other employees. However, establishments using shift workers must obtain the prior approval of the government authorities to keep the establishment open beyond the prescribed opening and closing hours.
Is there a minimum paid holiday entitlement? Minimum holiday entitlement Holiday entitlement is generally covered by the employment contract. However, where the employer is involved in a commercial activity, the local shops and establishments statutes will apply and these determine the minimum thresholds concerning holiday entitlement.
The thresholds usually range from 12 to 21 days' holiday per year. Certain local shops and establishments statutes also contain provisions concerning sick leave and casual leave which generally ranges from 12 to 24 days.
Further, the Factories Act provides that every adult worker who has worked in a factory for at least days in a calendar year is entitled to one day's leave with wages for every 20 days of work.
Public holidays These holidays differ from region to region and range from between four to ten days' holiday each year. Illness and injury of employees What rights do employees have to time off in the case of illness or injury? Are they entitled to sick pay during this time off?
Who pays the sick pay and, if the employer, can it recover any of the cost from the government?The ID Act defines a workman as any person employed in any industry to do any manual, unskilled, skilled, technical, operational, clerical or supervisory work for hire or reward, whether the terms of employment are express or implied.
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