David Livingstone, born March 19,BlantyreLanarkshire, Scotland—died May 1,Chitambo [now in Zambia]Scottish missionary and explorer who exercised a formative influence on Western attitudes toward Africa. Early life Livingstone grew up in a distinctively Scottish family environment of personal piety, poverty, hard work, zeal for education, and a sense of mission.
He and his brother John worked twelve-hour days as piecerstying broken cotton threads on the spinning machines. He was a student at A biography of david livingston Charing Cross Hospital Medical School in —40, with his courses covering medical practice, midwifery, and botany.
Neil Livingstone was a Sunday school teacher and teetotaller who handed out Christian tracts on his travels as a door-to-door tea salesman. He extensively read books on theology, travel, and missionary enterprises. This rubbed off on the young David, who became an avid reader, but he also loved scouring the countryside for animal, plant, and geological specimens in local limestone quarries.
Influenced by revivalistic teachings in the United States, Livingstone entirely accepted the proposition put by Charles Finney, Professor of Theology at Oberlin College, Ohio, that "the Holy Spirit is open to all who ask it". For Livingstone, this meant a release from the fear of eternal damnation.
This monotonous work was necessary to support his impoverished family, but it taught him persistence, endurance, and a natural empathy with all who labour, as expressed by lines that he used to hum from the egalitarian Rabbie Burns song: Later in life, Gallagher became a priest and founded the third oldest Catholic Church in Glasgow: A painting of both Gallagher and Livingstone by Roy Petrie[ who?
In addition, he attended divinity lectures by Wardlaw, a leader at this time of vigorous anti-slavery campaigning in the city. He continued his medical studies in London while training there and in Ongar, Essex where he and other students were taught Greek, Latin, Hebrew and theology by the Rev.
Livingstone, therefore, focused his ambitions on Southern Africa. The house still stands and has a plaque that can be seen outside the house 17 Burnbank Road. He was awarded the Freedom of the Town of Hamilton. Exploration of southern and central Africa[ edit ] The journeys of Livingstone in Africa between and Livingstone was obliged to leave his first mission at Mabotsa in Botswana in after irreconcilable differences emerged between him and his fellow missionary, Rogers [sic] Edwards and because the Bakgatla were proving indifferent to the Gospel.
He abandoned Chonuane, his next mission, in because of drought and the proximity of the Boers and his desire "to move on to the regions beyond".
Just as important had been the three journeys far to the north of Kolobeng which he had undertaken between and and which had left him convinced that the best long-term chance for successful evangelising was to open up Africa to European plunderers and missionaries by mapping and navigating its rivers which might then become "Highways" into the interior.
Such journeys had also been hindered by the opposition of powerful chiefs and tribes, such as the Loziand the Lunda of Mwata Kazembe. Preaching from a wagon The qualities and approaches which gave Livingstone an advantage as an explorer were that he usually travelled light, and he had an ability to reassure chiefs that he was not a threat.
Other expeditions had dozens of soldiers armed with rifles and scores of hired porters carrying supplies, and were seen as military incursions or were mistaken for slave-raiding parties. Livingstone, on the other hand, travelled on most of his journeys with a few servants and porters, bartering for supplies along the way, with a couple of guns for protection.
He preached a Christian message but did not force it on unwilling ears; he understood the ways of local chiefs and successfully negotiated passage through their territory, and was often hospitably received and aided, even by Mwata Kazembe.
His motto—now inscribed on his statue at Victoria Falls—was "Christianity, Commerce and Civilization", a combination that he hoped would form an alternative to the slave trade, and impart dignity to the Africans in the eyes of Europeans.
He was encouraged by the response in Britain to his discoveries and support for future expeditions, so he resigned from the London Missionary Society in According to his Victorian biographer W. Garden Blaikie, the reason was to prevent public concerns that his non-missionary activities such as his scientific work might show the LMS to be "departing from the proper objects of a missionary body".
Livingstone had written to the directors of the society to express complaints about their policies and the clustering of too many missionaries near the Cape Colony, despite the sparse native population.
In a letter from the directors of the LMS, which Livingstone received at Quelimane, he was congratulated on his journey but was told that the directors were "restricted in their power of aiding plans connected only remotely with the spread of the Gospel". When he was approached by Roderick Murchison, president of the Royal Geographical Societywho put him in touch with the Foreign Secretary, Livingstone said nothing to the LMS directors, even when his leadership of a government expedition to the Zambezi seemed increasingly likely to be funded by the Exchequer.
Livingstone had suffered over thirty attacks during his journey but had deliberately understated his suffering so as not to discourage the LMS from sending missionaries to the Kololo.
Consequently, the missionaries had set out for a marshy region with wholly inadequate supplies of quinine and they had soon weakened and died. However, it turned out to be completely impassable to boats past the Cahora Bassa rapids, a series of cataracts and rapids that Livingstone had failed to explore on his earlier travels.
Expedition members recorded that Livingstone was an inept leader incapable of managing a large-scale project. He was also said to be secretive, self-righteous, and moody, and could not tolerate criticism, all of which severely strained the expedition and which led to his physician John Kirk writing in"I can come to no other conclusion than that Dr Livingstone is out of his mind and a most unsafe leader".
The expedition became the first to reach Lake Malawi and they explored it in a four-oared gig. Inthey returned to the coast to await the arrival of a steam boat specially designed to sail on Lake Malawi. Mary Livingstone arrived along with the boat.biography of Dr.
David Livingston, Jr. During Dr. Livingston's studies in Israel, he realized the importance of correctly locating the Biblical cities of Bethel and Ai, in order to resolve the resultant dating controversies that have grown .
David Livingstone: The Truth behind the legend (Biography) [Rob MacKenzie] on lausannecongress2018.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
Livingstone is perhaps the best-known missionary of them all.
His attempts to find the source of the Nile and his famous meeting with Henry Morton Stanley have become the stuff of lausannecongress2018.coms: David Livingstone () was a Scottish physician and possibly the greatest of all African missionaries, explorers, and antislavery advocates.
Before Livingstone, Africa's interior was almost entirely unknown to the outside world. David Livingstone () was a Scottish missionary, doctor and explorer who helped open the heart of Africa to missions. His travels covered one-third of the continent, from the Cape to near the Equator, and from the Atlantic to the Indian Ocean.
David Livingston is an American television producer and director. He is mostly known for his involvement in the writing and production of the various modern Star Trek franchises. Livingston also has production credits on several episodes of Seven Days and Threshold as well as a television remake of Carrie.
David Livingstone () was a Scottish physician and possibly the greatest of all African missionaries, explorers, and antislavery advocates. Before Livingstone, Africa's interior was almost entirely unknown to the outside world.